For a few rare species, the incidence of genetic monogamy is 100%, with all offspring genetically related to the socially monogamous pair.
But genetic monogamy is strikingly low in other species.
The actual incidence of social monogamy varies greatly across different branches of the evolutionary tree. Social monogamy has also been observed in reptiles, fish, and insects. Many socially monogamous species engage in extra-pair copulations, making them sexually non-monogamous.
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Anatomical structures on the head and throat of a domestic turkey. interspecific sexuality, sexual arousal from objects or places, sex with dead animals, homosexual sexual behaviour, bisexual sexual behaviour).
sex apparently due to duress or coercion and situational sexual behaviour) or non-reproductively motivated (e.g.
A combination of terms indicates examples where levels of relationships coincide, e.g., sociosexual and sociogenetic monogamy describe corresponding social and sexual, and social and genetic monogamous relationships, respectively.
Whatever makes a pair of animals socially monogamous does not necessarily make them sexually or genetically monogamous.
There are four basic systems: Monogamy occurs when one male mates with one female exclusively.