Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin, and often also contains lead or zinc.
It is strong and durable but can also capture the fine, complex detail within a casting mould.
Softwoods from evergreens such as cedar and pine are coarser, less dense and easier to carve, whereas hardwoods from deciduous trees such as oak, boxwood, walnut and limewood, are harder but more durable and allow more elaborate carving and finer details.
A plaster mould is created layer by layer around the wax model. The surface finish or patina is created using acid and wax.
The mould with the model inside is fired in a kiln. For centuries sculptors have used stone for figurative carvings and ornamental architectural work.
Many free-standing marble figures in dynamic poses are portrayed with tree trunks or columns attached to the legs in order to provide a stable base.
Figures to be displayed in niches were often hollowed out to reduce their weight.
Different sizes of tool are used throughout the carving process, each leaving their mark.