French was widely used by the aristocracy in the nineteenth century.Spoken in Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, the Cape Verde Islands, São Tomé, Príncipe, and Macão, Portuguese is the world's fifth largest language in terms of number of speakers. Many cultural symbols of national identity focus on the Age of Discovery and an imagined community that extends beyond the political frontiers of the nation.
Saudade refers to a melancholic and hopeful nostalgia for a homeland that is far away.
The fado, derived from the Latin word for "fate," is a popular urban song form that generally expresses sadness, longing, and regret.
The name "Portugal" derives from a Roman or pre-Roman settlement called Portus Cale (the modern city of Porto) near the mouth of the Douro River.
The Romans referred to this region as the province of Lusitania, and the prefix Luso (meaning "Portuguese") is still used in some contexts.
Portugal has been receiving immigrants, primarily from former overseas territories such as the Cape Verde Islands.